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New Buckenham was originally a town laid out beyond the castle bailey founded in the late 12th century by William de Albini, Earl of Sussex. A text survives from him to the burgesses confirming grants of Earl William his father and Earl William his grandfather. This takes the origin of the castle back to either the founder of the castle, who died in 1176, or to his son who died in 1193. It was first recorded as a borough in 1247-8. The town had a rectilinear layout comparable to a similar settlement laid out by the de Albinis near to the castle at Rising. The settlement was square in plan and surrounded by a boundary ditch and canalized stream on three sides, of which there are some extant remains. Within the boundary of this defensive ditch are many 15th to 18th century houses, many now fronted with 19th century brick, and the 15th century parish church. It is thought that the plan was altered by the foundation of this parish church originally constructed by Robert de Tateshale in the mid-late 13th century and also by the construction of buildings over the southern market in the 16th century, of which the original limit is now marked by Boosey's Walk. There have been a series of evaluation, excavation and stray finds on the site which have yielded many examples of Medieval and Post Medieval pottery as well as animal remains from a butchery site.

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