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LONDINIUM

ALTERNATIVE NAME:  LONDINIUM AUGUSTA, LONDINIVM
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Roman London. London was established as a commercial centre by the time of the Boudiccan revolt. The name Londinium first appears at that time in connection with its destruction by fire. Evidence for the fire has been found on a number of sites, in the form of a layer of ash one foot thick. The buildings at that time were mainly of wattle and daub, but there had been a planned development of more permanent buildings dated AD 44-50, with a reconstruction dated AD 50-60, on the site of the forum. The first forum and basilica is dated mid-Flavian (AD 69-96), the final forum being not earlier than Hadrian (AD 117-138). A second major conflagration, not connected with any known historical event, took place in the early second century. Other important buildings, all of the second century include the governor's palace, the mithraic temple, the fort and bath houses. The city wall was probably built in the late second century and certainly before AD 225, but the riverside wall is third century. The three main cemeteries are at Aldgate, Bishopgate and Newgate inncluding burials north of St Pauls which give some idea of the extent of the city before it was walled. The first official London mint was under Carausius (AD 286-7) and continued to the time of Constantine (AD 306-37), and to as late as AD 388. London was the head of organised Christianity by AD 314, and was honoured with the addition of Augusta to the name after AD 326. The river was almost certainly bridged soon after the invasion. The site is not known but it was probably where the Medieval bridge stood. Many Roman coins and other objects have been found on this line during dredging, and Roman roads south of the Thames are aligned approximately on the Medieval bridge.

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