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A Roman villa discovered during landscaping in the late 1840s in the garden of Boxmoor House excavated by J Evans in 1851, some of the finds are in the British Museum. Rescue excavations were carried out by Hemel Hempstead Excavation Society in 1966, 1969 and 1970. Five building periods were recognised: dates are tentative; Period 1, late 1st or early 2nd cent, timber building of winged corridor type with painted wall plaster. Period 2, mid-2nd cent, building of cob also winged corridor type, tessellated pavements. Period 3, late 2nd cent, apparently demolished and rebuilt dwarf masonry walls and cob, tessellated pavements. Period 4, 3rd cent, reduced in size - timber structure over east part of site: row of post holes across the building. Period 5, early 4th cent; phase A, rebuilding with further reduction in size; phase B, alterations, a hearth beneath period 1 may represent an earlier building and a coin of Arcadius (383-408 AD) may indicate "squatting" after period 5. An imperial lead seal dated late 3rd early 4th cent. suggests the estate was run by a bailiff. The site is now occupied by school playing fields.

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