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Augustinian priory founded in 1129 by Robery D'Oilly the younger son of the first Norman Lord of Oxford. It was granted abbey status in 1154, and extensively rebuilt and enlarged by Abbot Leech in 1247. The abbey was dissolved in 1539, though the buildings were left intact. In 1542 it was converted, without alteration, into a cathedral church and the former abbot, Richard King, became the first Bishop of Oxford. However, the running of Osney as a cathedral proved too costly for Henry VIII and in 1546 the Bishop moved to the present, smaller and cheaper cathedral. The buildings were despoiled for the sake of the new foundation (Christ Church) and fell rapidly into decay. Much of the stone found its way into local buildings, including St Frideswide's, and during the Civil War it was used to fortify the city. Following the lease of the site to a clothier, iron, glass and woodwork were removed and most of the old buildings were demolished. An explosion in a powder house in 1643 caused further damage and a few years later the remaining west tower was pulled down. All that can bee seen today is a small 15th century timber-framed building in the Botley Road. In Excavations, and the evidence form early maps, plans and views of buildings in the vicinity of the Abbey have allowed a reinterpretation of the Abbey complex. It appears that the church had a claustral complex to the South, but the normal range of domestic buildings usually adjoining the cloister were not present. Instead, to the North-West was a large courtyard, along the South side of which were the kitchens and refectory. South-West of the church, near the river and mill were minor courts and the infirmary. South of the church lay the monk's cemetery and abbot's courts.

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