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A military airfield, opened in 1940, and operational before its building programme was actually completed. Initially the airfield had a grass runway but this was replaced by three hard runways late in 1940. Construction of site buildings and facilities continued into late 1941. Originally the site was conceived as a Aircraft Storage Unit / Maintenance Unit base but because of the desperate situation in 1940 it was also used as a fighter base during the Battle of Britain. During the Battle, it formed part of 10 Group Royal Air Force Fighter Command and was used as a satellite and relief airfield for Middle Wallop, with units using the airfield on an ad hoc basis each day. The wartime base was used by a large number of Squadrons, including British, Canadian and Polish units. Post war the base was used to store surplus aircraft and mainly by transport and communications units. There was a hiatus in flying from 1976-1993 when the base was redesignated as Azimghur Barracks for the army. In 1989 a Ministry of Defence satellite system was built at the airfield. In 1993 RAF flying resumed at a reduced level. Colerne also houses a collection of historic aircraft. A number of the wartime buildings had survived until their demolition in 2002. After this only three type L hangars remained in 2003.

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