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CAWTHORN

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Roman temporary camp and two forts, one with an annexe, surviving as earthworks. Limited finds evidence indicates a late 1st and early 2nd century AD date. Many features, including streets and embanked enclosures, exist in the interiors of the main defensive earthworks, in particular within Fort A, Annexe B and Camp C. Limited excavation in 1999-2000 in Fort A and Annexe B revealed evidence of multi-phase buildings and streets. Roman period pottery and melon glass beads were recovered and one building produced an archaeo-magnetic date of late 1st and early 2nd century date. In addition, there is post-Roman activity on site in the form of probable Grubenhaeuser, a number of which were excavated in the 1920s by Sir Ian Richmond and termed as 'officers' dugouts'. One of these 'dugouts' was re-excavated in 1999 and proven to be, in all probability, a Grubenhaus of Early Medieval date. A number of depressions across the site require investigation as further examples of Grubenhaeuser. Other features, particularly in Camp C, may be of post-Roman date. There is also evidence for pre-Roman activity on site including a barrow in the centre of Fort A (SE 79 SE 55), also a substantial ditch and a pit which were found to underly the north and west ramparts of Fort A in the excavations undertaken in 2000.

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