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BYLAND ABBEY

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The remains of the church and claustral ranges of the Cistercian abbey of St Mary, re-founded at Byland in 1177 and dissolved in 1538. The abbey was originally founded at Calder (UID 8654) in Cumbria in 1134 as a daughter house of the Savigniac Furness Abbey, but the monks fled Calder in 1538, and after temporary homes at Hood (57371), Old Byland (57157) and Stocking (57386) - where in 1147 they were received into the Cistercian order along with the rest of the Savigniac congregation - finally settled at Byland. The extensive ruins are of typical Cistercian plan. The earliest are those of the lay-brothers' quarters, which date from c 1155. The church is of early Gothic style, and except for parts of the nave and the remains of an early 13th-century wheel window in the west front, is of late 12th-century date. Building work was mostly complete by c 1200 although later additions include a 15th-century meat kitchen and an abbot's lodging (1546365) of 13th-century and later date south of the east range. The church lay at the heart of an exceptionally large precinct (1546052) of about 50ha, entered in the west through an inner gatehouse (1502018) that is still partly extant. The sites of a number of other monastic buildings survive as earthworks within the precinct or are hinted at in documents, including a guesthouse (1543083), dovecote (1543095) and watermill (1543327); another monastic watermill (1543395) lies just outside. The abbey was served by an extensive network of dams (eg 1503164, 1503166) and leats (eg 927304, 1543300, 1543383), draining the precinct and surrounding land, protecting it against floods and re-introducing water in a controlled manner. Two monastic fishponds (56865, 1533220) and a deer park (56882) lie just outside the precinct. A number of small quarries (eg 927358) have been said to be the source of the abbey's building stone, but the constructional stone most likely came from quarries 1.5km away on Wass Bank (1538727). Scheduled.

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