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EXNING ROMAN VILLA

ALTERNATIVE NAME:  EXNING VILLA
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Site of a Roman villa located circa 1.5 kilometres north-west of Exning, and 1 kilometre south-west of the Cambridgeshire village of Landwade (NB the site has been referred to frequently as the Landwade Villa. However, the fact that Landwade is in a different county to the villa has caused some confusion). The site was first discovered in 1904 during work in an orchard. A mosaic pavement discovered then was removed to the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. A proposal to convert the orchard to arable land in 1958 prompted trial excavations that year and, the following year, complete excavation of the building that had contained the mosaic. The earliest phase of activity was represented by a complex of ditches, post holes and pits, none of which form obvious patterns or structures, but all of which probably date to the 1st and early 2nd century AD. The next phase saw construction of a large timber building, which was replaced around the late 3rd century by a stone building which itself saw several phases of development. A date towards the middle of the fourth century is suggested for the destruction of the building, although the evidence is rather vague. Wheel ruts crossing the site are believed to be of medieval date. Finds from the site include pottery, coins, a shale bracelet, some animal bones, and painted wall plaster. A gas pipeline dug in 1968 and passing close to the villa revealed evidence for substantial Romano-British activity extending for nearly a mile, and up to 200 yards wide.

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Further information about monuments may be obtained by contacting Archive Services, through the English Heritage website.