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LINDUM COLONIA

ALTERNATIVE NAME:  LINDVM COLONIA, COLONIA DOMITIANA LINDENSIUM
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The site of the Roman colony at Lincoln; located on site of the legionary fortress when it was left in the late 1st century AD; the Severan walls followed the line of the fortress's defences. Developed into a thriving town. The Legio II Adiutrix probably left Lincoln in 77, and shortly afterwards the Colonia ws founded, primarily for soldiers of the 9th Legion. The original timber defences of the legionary fortress were removed and replaced in stone, and the enclosed area extended southwards to the River Witham. This, the 'lower town' may have originally been the fort's canabae, although limited excavation has found little evidence of structures dating to the pre-Colonia occupation period. Excavations have located the forum, a possible temple associated with the forum, and public baths, the Roman waterfront, and several minor buildings. Excavations at St Paul-in-the Baile have found church-like buildings dating to the end of Roman rule or the early sub-Roman period, and a forerunner to an excavated church on the same site of Saxon date. Almost all of the sites occupied in the 3rd century were still occupied in the 4th century, but this had reduced by half by the end of the 4th century. This is a reduction in both scale and quality. As is the case in other late Roman cities, there are deposits of late 4th century Dark Earth, and the colonia was not reoccupied by the early Saxons. The discovery of the early church may indicate the establishment of a See, and it is possible that in the sub-Roman period, Lincoln became an ecclesiatical centre after being largely abandoned by its inhabitants. The walls and gates were partly incorporated into the Mediaeval defences.

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