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RICHMOND CASTLE

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The standing remains of Richmond Castle. The earliest form of the castle was that of a massive curtain wall around two sides of a triangular great court. The masonry of this wall dates to the last thirty years of the 11th century, though the parapets and wall walk on the east side are early 14th century. Three projecting towers defended the 11th century curtain on the east side while another smaller tower stood at the south west angle. The curtain on the west side still stands to a considerable height and contains an 11th century sallyport. It also contains a semicircular arch indicating the site of the greater chapel. At the north angle of the curtain, beneath the later keep, is the 11th century inner gatehouse. The outer gatehouse is no longer standing. In the south east angle of the great court is the 11th century Scolland's Hall. Originally a two-storey building, the first floor was reached by an external stair and consisted of a great hall. In the 14th century, the hall was modified by the insertion of a new doorway and window. Eleventh century masonry survives in the three towers projecting from the east curtain. The latrine pits and lower parts of the Gold Hole Tower (the garderobe tower) are of that date, as are the lower floors of the Robin Hood Tower. Dominating the castle is the square keep, 30.6 metres high and built in the second half of the 12th century over the 11th century inner gatehouse. Also 12th century is wall around the outer court, or cockpit, which is thought initially to have been enclosed by a timber palisade. The north section of the wall, and part of the east, is still extant, and the buried foundations of two towers survive to the south and east. North of Scolland's Hall are the ruins of a group of two-storey buildings built in the 14th century and housing a chapel and chamber. The castle was used as a military prison in both World Wars: there is graffiti from conscientious objectors held here in the First World War.

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