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1700- 1799 Excavation CASTLEFIELD ROMAN FORT

Wall sectioned near one of the corners of the fort.
Antiquarian REVEREND MR J Whitaker

Publications :
Reference Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration JONES,G./GREALEY,S./1974/ROMAN MANCHESTER/17

Note Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration WHITAKER,J./1773/HISTORY OF MANCHESTER/1:45

1766 Excavation CASTLEFIELD VICUS

Whitaker describes a building found on "the slope of the bank" in 1766. The interior measurements were 16 yards by 12 yards and the walls 6 feet thick. His description indicates that it was either excavated or demolished.
Antiquarian REVEREND MR J Whitaker

Publications :
Full report Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration Whitaker, Rev J/1773/History of Manchester/33-5

1768- 1769 Excavation CASTLEFIELD ROMAN FORT

A treasure hunter had made trenches through the walls near the SE angle of the fort. Whitaker followed this up and in a further excavation discovered the wall of a corner turret set three to four feet back from the perimeter wall.
Antiquarian REVEREND MR J Whitaker

Publications :
Reference Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 17/1899/

Full report Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration Whitaker, Rev J/1773/History of Manchester/

1789 Watching Brief CASTLEFIELD VICUS

Several ovens were laid bare in 1789 by Mr Perry, cut in the rock, and appear to have been near the SE angle of the fort. Millstones were found nearby, and Roeder reports that he found further millstone fragments in the vicinity in the late 1890's.
Antiquarian Perry

Publications :
Reference Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 17/1899/

1843- 1844 Excavation CASTLEFIELD ROMAN FORT

Remnant of Roman walling on the East circuit of the fort defences.

"In the years 1843-4, Mr Still of the Ordnance Survey made a plan of the site of the castrum. To do so, he laid most of the fragments of wall then existing. One fragment, on the SE side, was at the time roughly sketched by Sir Henry Dryden..According to Sir Henry, the fragment was 13 feet in length by 4 feet high, and originally 7 feet thick." (Thompson-Watkin)
Archive Holder Northampton County Library
Director of fieldwork SIR H Dryden

Publications :
Reference Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration JONES GDB AND GREALEY S/1974/ROMAN MANCHESTER

Reference Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration THOMPSON WATKIN,W./1883/ROMAN LANCASHIRE/98

1849 Watching Brief CASTLEFIELD ROMAN FORT

Roman paving observed during railway construction.
Antiquarian Howarth

Publications :
Reference Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 17/1899/

1897 Excavation GILBERT STREET/MOUNT STREET

The area along the railway line between Gilbert and Mount Streets has Roman strata to the depth of three feet. Almost in the centre between the streets was a botontinus* measuring 7' across, which was 3-4' deep. It contained Samian and black-and-white wares, burnt bones, glass amphorae and iron nails.

*Botontinus=little button (lit.), ie a button shaped depression. Inf on definition from V Swann.
Director of fieldwork C Roeder

Publications :
Full report Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 17/1899/

1897- 1898 Watching Brief CASTLEFIELD ROMAN FORT

The North wall of the fort was sectioned on both sides of Collier Street during railway construction operations.
Sectioned at SJ83279765 and SJ83269765.
Archive Holder Manchester Library
Director of fieldwork C Roeder
Auspices Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society

Publications :
Full report Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 17/1899/87-212

Full report Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration ROEDER,C/1900/ROMAN MANCHESTER/figs op 92 and 94.

Reference Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration Walker JS/ 1986/Roman Manchester

1897- 1898 Watching Brief CASTLEFIELD ROMAN FORT

Ten double trenches were excavated along the North fort wall and the fosse during railway construction, the trenches extending as far as the `new' police station on Bridgewater Street.
Director of fieldwork C Roeder

Publications :
Full report Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 17/1899/

1898 Watching Brief COLLIER STREET

A long trench was cut in Collier Street leading to Southern's timber yard. A course of paving stones was encountered within the fort indicating levelling of the inter-castral area at this point.
Antiquarian C Roeder

Publications :
Note Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 17/1899/

1899 Excavation CORN AND PROVISION EXCHANGE SITE

Roman surfaces were exposed and examined.
SMR No. 8417.2.0.
Director of fieldwork C Roeder

Publications :
Note Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 17/1899/

1906- 1907 Excavation CASTLEFIELD ROMAN FORT

Two excavations were undertaken on the defences of the Roman fort, on the East side at SJ83149767, and on the East side at SJ83259757.
Director of fieldwork F A Bruton
Auspices Classical Association

Publications :
Reference Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 30/1913/197,199

Full report Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration BRUTON,F.A./1909/ROMAN FORT AT MANCHESTER/67,70.

Reference Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration Jones GDB and Grealey S/1974/Roman Manchester/25

1912 Excavation BRIDGEWATER STREET/DUKE STREET

Observation during building work recorded parts of the North wall of fort and fosse.
Director of fieldwork J J Phelps

Publications :
Full report Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 30/1913/195-210

1950- 1951 Excavation 11-27 MANOR STREET

Excavation of the West side of the North gate, and a section of the North wall.
Director of fieldwork J W Jackson
Funding Body/Financier Manchester City Council
Auspices Classical Association
Director of fieldwork J A Petch
Funding Body/Financier Ancient Monuments Society
Funding Body/Financier Manchester University

Publications :
Full report Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 62/1950-51/177-195

1951 Excavation IVY STREET


Director of fieldwork D Atkinson
Funding Body/Financier Manchester City Council
Auspices Classical Association
Funding Body/Financier Manchester University

Publications :
Note The journal of Roman studies Society for Promotion of Roman Studies 42/1952/91

1951- 1955 Excavation BRIDGEWATER ESTATE/MANOR STREET

Site of Northgate and Northern defences.
Auspices Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society
Auspices Classical Association
Director of fieldwork J A Petch
Funding Body/Financier Ancient Monuments Society
Funding Body/Financier Manchester University

Publications :
Interim report Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 62/1950-1/177-95

Interim report Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 64/1954/27-37

Interim report Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 66/1956/29-37

Reference Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration Jones GDB and Grealey S/1974/Roman Manchester

1954 Excavation 1-9 MANOR STREET

Excavation of the North gate.
Auspices Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society
Auspices Classical Association
Director of fieldwork J A Petch
Funding Body/Financier Manchester University

Publications :
Note The journal of Roman studies Society for Promotion of Roman Studies 45/1955/128

Full report Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 64/1954/27-37

1955- 1956 Excavation 8-14 BEAUFORT STREET

Excavation of the North gate.
Auspices Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society
Director of fieldwork S S Frere
Auspices Classical Association
Director of fieldwork J A Petch
Funding Body/Financier Manchester University

Publications :
Full report Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 66/1956/29-37

1965 Excavation CASTLEFIELD ROMAN FORT

Excavations of three extra-mural ditches to the West of the North gate of the Roman fort.
Director of fieldwork J Williams
Auspices Manchester University
Director of fieldwork J Wareing

Publications :
Note Council for British Archaeology Group 5: Archaeological newsletter 7/1966/

1965- 1967 Excavation BRIDGEWATER STREET/DUKE STREET

Excavation examined the northern defences of the Roman fort
Director of fieldwork J Webster
Director of fieldwork J H Williams

Publications :
Note Council for British Archaeology Group 5: Archaeological newsletter 7/1966/9

Note The journal of Roman studies Society for Promotion of Roman Studies 56/1966/200

Note The journal of Roman studies Society for Promotion of Roman Studies 57/1967/179

Reference Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration JONES,G.D.B./GREALEY,S./1974/ROMAN MANCHESTER/23-27

1974- 1975 Excavation DUKE PLACE

NW corner of the fort. Bruton's 1907 excavation of the West side of the fort's defences was re-interpreted.
Director of fieldwork G D B Jones
Funding Body/Financier Department of the Environment
Director of fieldwork P Reynolds
Finds Holder Manchester Museum
Funding Body/Financier Manchester City Council
Archive Holder Manchester University Archaeology Department

Publications :
Note Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies 7/1976/319

Full report Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration WALKER,J.S./1986/ROMAN MANCHESTER/13-20

1979 Excavation WORSLEY STREET

SMR No's 415.1.2/1.3/1.4/1.5/1.6/1.7.
Director of fieldwork G D B Jones
Finds Holder Manchester Museum
Archive Holder Manchester Museum

1979 Excavation BRIDGEWATER STREET/COLLIER STREET/BEAUFORT STREET

Excavation of the North gate and the area to the north of the fort. Next phase recorded as UID 634077.
Director of fieldwork P Holdsworth
Finds Holder Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit
Archive Holder Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit

Publications :
Note Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies 11/1980/

Pamphlet Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration Holdsworth P/1982/Roman Manchester. (Publ by GMAU).

1979- 1980 Excavation BRIDGEWATER STREET/COLLIER STREET/BEAUFORT STREET

Re-excavation of the North gate, and the Northern exit road. (Re-excavation of UID 634080, next phase UID 649877). SMR nos 415.1.2/.3/.4/.5/.6/.7
Director of fieldwork G D B Jones
Finds Holder Manchester Museum
Archive Holder C Makepeace
Archive Holder Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit

Publications :
Note Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies 12/1981/

Pamphlet Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration Holdsworth P/1982/Roman Manchester

Full report Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration WALKER,J.S./1986/ROMAN MANCHESTER/21-138

1980- 1981 Excavation BRIDGEWATER STREET/COLLIER STREET/BEAUFORT STREET

Excavation of the North fort defences and vicus. Four grubenhauser identified. (Earlier phases were UID 634080 & 634077). SMR No. 415.2.1.
Auspices Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit
Director of fieldwork P Reynolds
Director of fieldwork M Morris
Funding Body/Financier Manpower Services Commission
Finds Holder Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit
Archive Holder Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit

Publications :
Note Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies 13/1982/

Note Council for British Archaeology: Archaeology in Britain [incorporating annual report] 1981 for 1980/

Note Council for British Archaeology: Archaeology in Britain [incorporating annual report] 1982 for 1981/

Pamphlet Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration Holdsworth P/1982/Roman Manchester

Full report Virtual Catalogue Entry to support E.I. Migration WALKER,J.S./1986/ROMAN MANCHESTER/21-138

1984 Watching Brief CASTLEFIELD

Evaluation of the Southern defences of the fort.
SMR No. 415?
Auspices Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit

Publications :
Note Council for British Archaeology: Archaeology in Britain [incorporating annual report] 1985 for 1984/

1985 Excavation DUKE STREET

The trenches opened by Bruton in 1906-7 on the West side of the fort were reopened and reinterpreted.
Director of fieldwork A Tyler
Director of fieldwork G Saunders
Director of fieldwork J Walker
Director of fieldwork J Leggatt

Publications :
Note Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies 17/1986/

Note Council for British Archaeology: Archaeology in Britain [incorporating annual report] 1986 for 1985/

1987 Watching Brief DUKE PLACE

Whitaker's `great inner ditch' of the Roman fort, which he found in 1771, appears to be subsidence from the banks of the River Medlock.
Auspices Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit

Publications :
Note Council for British Archaeology: Archaeology in Britain [incorporating annual report] 1988 for 1987/

1987 Excavation BEAUFORT STREET

Excavation of via principalis, principia and barracks on site beneath the railway viaduct.
Auspices Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit
Director of fieldwork G Saunders

Publications :
Note Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies 19/1988/

Note Council for British Archaeology Group 5: Archaeological newsletter 56/1988/16

Note Council for British Archaeology: Archaeology in Britain [incorporating annual report] 1988 for 1987/

1988 Excavation BTS SITE

The BTS site lies to the South of the fort, near the cemetery and `Mithraeum'. No structural features were found, but Roman deposits were encountered.
Auspices Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit

Publications :
Note Council for British Archaeology: Archaeology in Britain [incorporating annual report] 1989 for 1988/

1988 Excavation SOLOMON'S ARCHES, BEAUFORT STREET

Solomon's Arches, within and on the West side of the fort.
Auspices Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit

Publications :
Note Council for British Archaeology: Archaeology in Britain [incorporating annual report] 1989 for 1988/

Interim report Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit [assessment & evaluation reports] Sanders G/1988/Solomon's Arches, Beaufort Street: archaeology at 10/1/88/Report 1988/2.

1989 Excavation ONWARD WORKSHOP

Temporary industrial area occupied during expansion of the fort. Two parallel lines of ovens, or settling tanks, of unknown purpose were discovered.
Auspices Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit

Publications :
Note Council for British Archaeology: Archaeology in Britain [incorporating annual report] 1990 for 1989/

1991 Evaluation ATS, CASTLEFIELD

SMR No. 2024.
No Roman structural evidence was found, but plenty of unstratified R-B building was found as well as field boundaries and post-holes of uncertain date.
Auspices Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit
Director of fieldwork G Sanders
Funding Body/Financier City of Manchester Council
Finds Holder Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit

Publications :
Full report Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit [assessment & evaluation reports] Sanders G & Power D/1991/ATS Site, Castlefield, Manchester: an archaeological evaluation/Report No 1991/15.

1992 Watching Brief CONCERT HALL SITE

Watching brief in May 1992. A large pit or ditch was exposed in the NW
section, clearly of some antiquity. Any major pre-industrial archaeology
had been destroyed or truncated. (See Event 1028651 for following
evaluation). SMR No. 2084.1.0.
Auspices Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit
Director of fieldwork M Fletcher

Publications :
Full report Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit [assessment & evaluation reports] Fletcher M/1992/Concert Hall Site: An archaeological watching brief/Report No 1992/14.

2000 Desk Based Assessment CASTLE GATE, CASTLEFIELD

Assessment carried out in advance of proposed development on the south bank of the River Medlock opposite the Roman fort site. Funded by the Manchester Ship Canal Company.
Archive Holder University of Manchester Archaeological Unit
Auspices University of Manchester Archaeological Unit
Funding Body/Financier Developer

Publications :
Full report UMAU [assessment & evaluation reports] UMAU/2000/Castle Gate, Castlefield: a desk-based assessment/Report 2000/50.

2000 Desk Based Assessment LAND BOUNDED BY BARTON STREET/BRIDGEWATER STREET/COLLIER STREET, CASTLEFIELD

Assessment of a proposed development site at Bridgewater Street noted previous archaeological work which recorded Roman vicus activity associated with the northern defences of the fort. Funded by DPH Ltd.
Archive Holder University of Manchester Archaeological Unit
Auspices University of Manchester Archaeological Unit
Funding Body/Financier Developer

Publications :
Full report UMAU [assessment & evaluation reports] UMAU/2000/Land Bounded by Barton Street, Bridgewater St and Collier Street, Castlefield, Manchester: an archaeological desk-based assessment/Report 2000/52.

2001 Desk Based Assessment DUKE STREET/DUKE PLACE, CASTLEFIELD

Assessment in advance of proposed development within the northwest corner of the Roman fort.
Archive Holder University of Manchester Archaeological Unit
Auspices University of Manchester Archaeological Unit
Funding Body/Financier Developer

Publications :
Full report UMAU [assessment & evaluation reports] UMAU/2001/Duke Street/Duke Place, Castlefield, Manchester: archaeological desk-based assessment.

2001 Evaluation DUKE STREET/DUKE PLACE, CASTLEFIELD

Evaluation in advance of proposed development recorded structural evidence for Roman activity within the fort.
Auspices Map Archaeological Consultancy Limited
Archive Holder Map Archaeological Consultancy Limited
Finds Holder Map Archaeological Consultancy Limited
Funding Body/Financier Developer

Publications :
Full report MAP Archaeological Consultancy Ltd [assessment & evaluation reports] MAP/2001/Archaeological evaluation at Duke Street/Duke Place, Castlefield, Manchester.

2002 Desk Based Assessment CASTLEFIELD HOUSE, LIVERPOOL ROAD

Auspices University of Manchester Archaeological Unit
Archive Holder Manchester Museum

Publications :
Full report University of Manchester Archaeological Unit [assessment & evaluation reports] Anon/2002/Castlefield House, Liverpool Road, Manchester.

2004 Evaluation LAND AT CASTLEFIELD QUAY

Extensive evaluation revealed new evidence for the vicus south-east of the Roman fort and for the sequence of the fort defences.
Archive Holder University of Manchester Archaeological Unit
Auspices University of Manchester Archaeological Unit
Director of fieldwork R Gregory
Funding Body/Financier Developer
Finds Holder University of Manchester Archaeological Unit

Publications :
Full report UMAU [assessment & evaluation reports] Gregory R/2004/Archaeological evaluation at Castlefield Quay, Manchester.